Energy production is required for cell to regenerate, and cell carries mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell.
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a term explaining how certain wavelength spectrum light source produces ATP in mitochondria. Since 2016, “Photobiomodulation” (PBM) has been appearing as a keyword for future treatment method in, academic information classification of MeSH, National Institute of Health in USA.
Characteristic of PLT (Polychromatic LED Therapy based on PBM) is that capillaries recovery, and nitric oxide is produced from the cell’s mitochondria due to light absorbance. Due to this, oxygen and nutrients are effectively transported, which leads to active cell regeneration. It can be said that making the cell healthy is the start and the beginning of overcoming diseases.
Mitochondria, the core of a cell, uses enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) to produce bioenergy source ATP (Adenosine-triphosphate) when nutrients and oxygen from large intestine and lungs reaches mitochondria via vessels. Recent physiologists discovered the fact that certain wavelength spectrum of near-infrared ray light source irradiation on CCO enzyme greatly activates ATP synthesis.
*Cytochrome C oxidase (COO): an enzyme in mitochondria that plays a critical role in ATP production. Dr. Otto Warburg, who received two Nobel prizes have discovered this.
Photobiology is a study of effect of specific ionized radiation on biological system.
Biological effect of light differs depending on the wavelength range of the radiation. Radiation is absorbed through DNA, protein or molecule of certain medicine that is used on the skin. This molecule transforms into a substance that causes a chemical/biochemical reaction within the cell.
(specific ionized radiation is also known as non-ionized radiation, and it indicates visible ray and near-infrared ray) Commonly called “radiation” refers to ionized radiation, and it includes alpha ray related rays such as UV-ray, alpha ray, beta ray, and gamma ray
Photochemical response of biological system due to light is not something new
Vitamin D synthesis of the skin is an example of a photochemical reaction.
When UV-B reaches the skin, the intensity of the sunlight is just 105Mw/cm2, but it transforms 7-dehydrocholestrol, a common form of cholesterol, into Vitamin D3.
Until now, many researches’ collective conclusion is that low level visible rays such as red color, ,and near-infrared ray is absorbed by mitochondria which results in a more enhanced activation of ATP synthesis for cellular use. This process is followed by gene transcription and produced balanced ROS that induces cellular repair and cure. Important part of this process is to pierce through the blocked chain of neurons using nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide is released and returns to the system. Nitric oxide is a molecule that helps the transport and communicating of 60 trillion cells through signals. Also, it expands vessels and enhances circulation.
NO: (Nitric Oxide, •NO; nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide)is a colorless gas, and is a a form of compound with oxidized nitrogen. Fundamentally nitric oxide includes free radical, a chemical form of an unpaired electron (the dot indicates the unpaired electron in •NO). Nitric oxide is also a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, and is a critical molecule that has led the modern theory of atomic linkage. It is formed from an amino acid, Arginine, from the cell. As a signaling substance, it is involved in various physiological processes such as vessel expansion and signaling. (source: encyclopedia of molecular cell biology)
ROS: active oxygen: common active oxygen includes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide ion (O2 -), singlet oxygen: (1O2), and hydroxyl radical (•OH). Active oxygen normally functions as a disinfectant by attacking the pathogenic bacterium. However, for some reason, imbalance (too much) active oxygen will lead to attacking normal cells such as hydroxyl radical. ROS that increases by a certain spectrum of light source is known to have the ability to execute gene transcription as a protective response of oxidative stress, such as 2 signalling pathways that is activated upon pathogen invasion. In essence, for this reason, ROS produced through light irradiation acts as an antioxidant.
Appropriate wavelength spectrum and amount of light
For target cells or chromophores, accurate wavelength (1st law of photobiology) and strength of the wavelength (2nd law of photobiology)is crucial. If these two are not accurate, optimal absorbance fails to occur, and the first law of photobiology, Grotthus-Draper absorbance does not occur without absorbance. Also, sufficient photon intensity (that is, spectral irradiance) or density output (W/cm2) is required. If not, it might not be enough to obtain the desired result. However, if the intensity is too strong, photon energy might transform into excessive heat from the target tissue, which is not desired either. Secondly, dose and fluence need to be enough (J/cm2), but with output that is too low, irradiating for too long to obtain ideal energy density is undesired. This is because the second law of photobiology, Bunsen-Roscoe law, does not apply to low output density.
- • NO (Nitric Oxide)
- • ROS (Reactive Oxygen Series) → PKD (gene) → IkB (suppressor κB) + NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) → NF-κB (nuclear factor or κB stimulates gene transcription)
- • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) → cAMP (catabolite activator protein) → Jun/Fos (carcinogenic transcription factor) → AP-1 (activated protein transcription stimulates gene transcription)